California continues to suffer through a fourth year of water shortages, bordered by the largest body of water on earth. The crisis has encouraged residents to once again wonder if the Pacific Ocean is the answer to the state's water woes. Some are pushing for additional desalination plants like those used in water-starved Israel and Australia to convert ocean water into unlimited fresh water. Coastal Santa Barbara turned to desalination during a devastating five-year drought in the late 1980s, but by the time a new plant was ready for operation in 1992, heavy rains had returned. The $35 million facility ran for a few weeks before being shuttered. That's because the desalination process is not only potentially harmful to marine life, but removing salt by pushing salt water through membranes takes far more energy than simply pulling fresh water from inland sources. All that energy use is not only counter to the state's push for lower emissions, but it only seems economical during the worst of a drought. As Santa Barbara reactivates the plant this summer, water bills in the area are expected to increase by 40 percent.
Since California will be using desalination, they will need an Alkaline Water Machine to return the minerals to their water
Compared to local freshwater sources, desalination is certainly energy expensive. But it's only slightly more costly than other options available during drought conditions. That's why Santa Barbara is spending another $40 million to reopen its plant, and why 17 others are in the works along the state's coast. In Carlsbad, California, Poseidon Water is opening a $1 billion plant that will be the largest in the U.S. when it is completed in the fall. In a recent Wall Street Journal article, CEO Carlos Riva defended desalination plants against those that worry that they represent a step backward in the state's efforts to reduce carbon emissions, pointing out that the plant will "use less energy than one of the data center that are being built, and nobody claims that they are somehow immoral." According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, data centers are expected to consume 140 billion kilowatt hours of electricity a year by 2020—the output of 34 large coal power plants. According to the Pacific Institute, the Carlsbad plant will take 750 megawatt hours per day, so more than 500 equivalent plants would have to be constructed to match the energy cost of our Facebook and Google habits... 324
123 Through electrolysis large tap mineral clusters are reduced from their original size. The smaller cluster size gives the water excellent hydrating properties, high solubility and good permeability." Just How Stressed Out Is Your Drinking Water? Small clusters? Is this stuff for real? Well, yes and no, I discovered, after reaching out to Kenneth Jordan, distinguished professor of computational
chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh. Well known for his work on water clusters—groups of water molecules linked together—he collaborated on a number of studies on water structure that Science magazine listed as among the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 2004. There are dozens of companies that claim to convert water into clustered water or to otherwise rearrange water and sell products based on this. Essentially, all of these claims are bogus," he wrote in an email. "Take clustered water as an example
. One can make this in a laboratory at very low temperatures and very low pressures (i.e., in a vacuum). This keeps the clusters from touching one another. If they touch, they coalesce into bulk water, which is more stable. Alternative-health guru Andrew Weil used that word as well in response to a question about Kangen Water in 2010. "It is the latest variation of so-called alkaline water, which promoters claim is essential for elimination of the acidity in our bodies—attributed to all the evils of the modern world .... The human body needs absolutely no help in adjusting its pH." He added, Unless you have serious respiratory or kidney problems, body pH will remain in balance no matter what you eat or drink .... Bottom line: The health claims for water ionizers and for alkaline water are bogus. It's tempting to close with just one word—"ditto." But in fairness, alkaline water, like any clean water, is a far better choice for hydrating than soda or an additive-filled sports drink. If you choose to see an expensive machine as a gateway to a healthier lifestyle or to give you an edge when competing in sports, then jump right in. It's part and parcel of an alkaline diet, after all, a mostly-vegetarian regimen that I haven't really addressed here. (Why not? Scroll back up and take another look at the question.) But if you think alkaline water will allow you to avoid illnesses that fall into the "Sometimes Stuff Happens" category or live forever, then you are bound to be disappointed.